Ruby is an open source programming language that focuses on being simple to use. It was created by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto, who blended the best parts of his favorite languages to create it. It was released in 1995, and since then, it's become even more popular, with several conferences and meetups based on the Ruby language.
Shell is especially popular with the IT department, allowing them to write commands that directly tell the operating system what to do. It can be used to automate common processes like installing or uninstalling programs remotely, or to manage, backup, and copy files.
The programming language C++ builds off of C, and goes back almost as far — dating back to 1979. Bjarne Stroustrup created it while he was working on his PhD thesis, as a way to add additional features to C. Today, it's still widely used, as it's the core language in many operating systems, browsers, and games.
C#, pronounced "C-sharp," was developed by Microsoft im a team led by Anders Hejlsberg. It's similar to the programming language Java. It's used in mobile applications, games, and enterprise software.
PHP, which stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (yes, the "P" stands for "PHP"), is an open source programming language for web development and creating interactive web pages. It also works well with databases, and has been used by Facebook and Yahoo. However, developers have long ridiculed it one of the worst programming languages.
Java was first developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995, which was later acquired by Oracle. This open source language is used by companies like Twitter and Netflix, and is something of a standard at large companies. Developers have used Java to create mobile and web applications, games, and database-driven software. It's also similar to C++ and C#, allowing developers to easily switch between the languages.
Python is both one of the most popular programming languages and one of the fastest growing ones. In terms of popularity, it went from third place last year to second place in 2019. This open source language is frequently used for artificial intelligence applications and data science, but it's also known to be easy to get started with. There's a large community around Python, and even conferences and meetups dedicated to it.